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Morphological variation of central-western European populations of Abax parallelepipedus was studied in order to revise the microsystematics of this species. Original descriptions and systematic revisions published since the second half of the 18th century are discussed. Biometric variables and morphometric indexes were evaluated on 792 specimens sampled from several European countries. The data were statistically analysed in order to discriminate the populations significantly differentiated from the nominotypical form. Features of male genitalia are also discussed. The results attest that the morphological variation becomes more relevant among populations inhabiting alpine environments and the Italian ones show the most distinctive modifications of somatic and/or aedeagic traits. On the basis of these results, A. p. euganensis Schatzmayr, 1944 is resurrected from synonymy with A. p. inferior, whereas the following new synonymies are proposed:
Abax parallelepipedus parallelepipedus (Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783)
= A. p. subpunctatus (Dejean, 1828) syn. nov.
= A. p. audouini (L. Dufour, 1851) syn. nov.
= A. p. germanus Schauberger, 1927 syn. nov.
Abax parallelepipedus inferior (Seidlitz, 1887)
= A. p. alpigradus Schauberger, 1927 (sensu Schatzmayr, 1944) syn. nov.
A phylogeographical scenario is hypothesized and discussed in the light of the collected data.