Field selectivity of a spinosad-poisoned bait toward target tephritids and non-target insects
AbstractOne of the key-points in sustainable agriculture is to minimize the amount of pesticides inputs in agro-ecosystems increasing selectivity of active agents on target pests mainly. According to this perspective, control strategies utilising baits receive a growing interest. a spinosad-poisoned sugar-based bait, the so called GF-120 bait, utilised against diptera Tephritidae, recently appeared on the market. The toxicity of spinosad for non-target insects is demonstrated by several authors. However, the amount of pesticide applied is strongly reduced by using it with an attractive food-bait, even if field evidences on the selective attraction of this bait are missing. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the selectivity of GF-120 bait toward target and non-target insects under field conditions, focussing our attention on pollinators. Field trials were performed in a 20 years old olive orchard, where 12 baited and 12 unbaited traps were positioned for insect monitoring. The abundance of the most common orders of insects and target pest species Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata has been assessed. The main finding of this research is that many pollinators are not attracted by the bait, while target and non-target diptera are significantly attracted by the bait with the exception of Muscidae. The attraction toward a part of non-target diptera should be better explored in order to avoid negative impact on beneficial and non-target species. The need of pest control strategies safer for the environment and the wild populations of non-target organisms seems to be satisfied by the use of this bait.
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Copyright (c) 2014 Marco Infusino, Nino Iannotta, Stefano Scalercio
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